- Shahada - This is the saying that is often repeated throughout the Muslim world. It is what one says when one wants to become a Muslim, at the call to prayer, and when one is dying. It basically says, in English, "There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet."
- Salat - This is the daily call to prayer. It is made five times a day and is made while facing Mecca.
- Sawm - This is fasting. There are three types of fasting recognized. Obligatory ritual fasting is done during Ramadan. The other types of fasting are ascetic and repentance.
- Zakat - Alms-giving is obligatory giving of one's wealth to help the poor. 2.5% of one's wealth is required. Additional giving may be done as an act of charity.
- Hajj - This is the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims should complete this as he or she is able and can afford it.
This is just a basic list which I will expound on in subsequent posts. Some scholars suggest a sixth pillar of Jihad, but that's a whole separate issue, which I will also cover in several posts. I would not call it a sixth pillar.